Proressors JAMES D. DANA ann B. SILLIMAN.



AND Prorrssors H. A. NEWTON, 8. W. JOHNSON,






ERRATA. Page 263; bang hay elsewhere, for Santa, read Santo. . for Saybo, read Seyhbo. . i Hy ss ee for gies read Macoris. 253, Tas 4 = con ead co 254, ‘line 5, fi Sal Ee line 2, for P rocardia, en Pteroceroid. ‘Tine 19, ie Gee read Ci 6 ~~ : fro rom bottom, for te were much folded, read but nowhere

uch folded. 255, ae 19, rs read mi 285, line 4 ane Pee ti, read zy%5.

“line 2 for oui, fake outlie

Jines " ani or Paradgur, pr Paraudaquara.

‘Tine 27, after le elect nsert boulde

“line 28, for flanks of the serras, read flank of the serra.

295, line 22, for Para, read Para.

+ Almeyrine, oe! Almeyrine and Santarem. deposited.

line 28, * ine £2, before they, insert as. “line 46, for —being, read bearing.


——_-—_-+ @ +

NUMBER I. Page. Arr. I.—On the Se i ree Ae or Post-tertiary, of the New : Haven Region; by James D, Dana, eau 1

T.—On the Corona seen in total eta, of the Sun; by Ww.

ORTON, III.—On the Duration of Flashes of Lightning; by O.N. Roop, 15 IV.—On the physical condition of a closed circuit contiguous to a permanent and constant Voltaic current; or, on “the

electro-tonic state;” by Atrrep M. Mayer,_--...------ 17 V.—Abstract of the Programme for the Observation of Stars to the Ninth nee: undertaken by the German As- TFONONNCAL SOCICUY, = asses ee ta oe nc eae oe 25 VI.—On Gahnite from Sst Hill, Franklin Furnace, New ° Jersey; by Guo, Fo Bevel, = sft Se 28 VII.—Meteors of Novanber “1st 14th, 1870 30

1T.—On some phenomena of Binocular Vision; by JoszpH


IX.—Brief Contatbatatia to Zodlogy ‘from the Museum of Yale College. No. [X.—Notice of a Fossil Insect from the Carboniferous formation of Indiana; by S. I. Swirn, 44

X.—Earthquake of wate oe 20th, in Northeastern America;

XI.—Brief Contributions to Lodlogy from the - eur - a ollege. X.—D and new Ascidians from New England ; by A. E. WW suintirs = 54 SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE, Chemistry and Physics.—Thermo-cl l investigations, J. THOMSEN, 59. Geology and Natural History.— Notes on the American Maskidies 8 other oe - Letpy, 63.—On the cause of the Motion of Glaciers, J. Cro —On

logical Surv rvey of India, under the direction of THomas OLDHAM, 69.—Geological Survey id bio aer: rnia; Ornithology, ae I, edited fates F. Bairp: Geological Chart of Sweden, 70.—Delesse’s Lithologie des Mers

oe On = Mass of Asteroids between ‘Mas and Jupiter, DantEL Kir

mical and Meteorological Observations made at the United States Naval cia during the year 1867, 1:

Uaneous Scientific Inte genta Btn Eclipse of Dec. 22, 1870, 72.—A Topo- graphical Survey of the Hawaian Islands: A ees Observatory : icone Auroral Belt of Oct. 24h-25th, "T 3.— Obituar r. Augustus Matthiessen, 73.

—Edward Hartley, 74.—Edwin W. Root, 73.

Miscellaneous Bibliography.—Storer’s (Frank H.) ‘Cyclopedia of Quantitative Anal- ysis: The Story of the Rocks; A Fourteen Weeks’ Course in Popular Geolo- gy, J. Dorman Sree.e, 75.—A Text Book of —— Chemistry, Theoretical and piers GEORGE F. BARKER: _ rican Navuralist, a Popular Ilus-

ted Magazine of Natural History, 76


NUMBER IL. Page Arr, XII. —Observations on the Variation of the Magnetic Declination in connection with the Aurora of October 14th, 1870, etc.; by AtrrEp M. Mayer,.___._______. 77 XIII.—Notes on Granitic Sg First Part; by T.S. Hunt, 82

XIV.—On Siredon Meta morphoses, etc. ; by E. D. Corn... 89 mV: Carboniferous Limestone in Ohio; by E. b& pith ics te Ae Mee eon eke ok 91 XVI. “Brief Gonisbations to Zodlogy from the Museum of Yale College. . Descriptions of some imperfectly known A aaah rom New England; AW ee 93 XVII ning bale Water; by A.S. Packarp, Jr., 0 XVIII. es the es ee _ Nummulitie Jownaricn in Chi y Baron von Ricurnoren,...._..._...___.. 110 XIX. cae on the tas Fiagellata and the Spongize Rasen, DYE, SAMbe-Ciiue 0 113 X.—Memoir of Thomas Graham ; by Jostau P. Cooxxr,_. 115 XXI.—Note on transversely striated Shanda: fiber among the Soeimths ye De WA Ae A ee or 123 @ XX THe 0 Article I, on the Quaternary of the New ven Rats 5 GIG 2 eT Sea es eae ee 125 XXIII. —Auroral Belt of October 24th_2sth, TOTO, cs co 126 SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. Chemistry and Physics —On the Chlorides of Sulphur, phir ke and GUEROUT: the soluble = ‘iasolebie forms of Sulphur, BERIHELOT, Se the city. ble changes of color produced in certain iodides by sea ak USEL: On Tetrame- thylformene, Lwow, 131.—On an aromatic ape 2 reese 132.—On the producti cresol, WURT: thesis of aromatic aci ICTOR

ids, V. Meyer, 133.—On the constitution of Camphor, Victor MEYER, 134. Or Text- book of Elementary ee retical and Inorganic, by G. F. Barker, 136.

Geology and Natural History A Reply to Mr. Dall’s criticism on the gy peeeeces: as a division of the Annelids, yl S. Morse, 136.—On Kozoo on Canaden

7 A Ou ME cide, Dr. H. A. Hagen, 143,—Preliminary Report on the Crustacea dredged in the Gulf Stream in the Straits of Florida, L. F. DE Pourtates, 144.—On

the Mineral Constituents of Meteorites, N. § S. MASKELYNE: _ Foss il oe of the Rocky F


eal Surv of ein - i gee 147.—Mo onograph of the Ra nunculacese : act

Miscellaneous Scientific Intelligence. sel Sp on Mt. Washing- ton, 149.—Unusual sculten of halos: Head Waters of the Amazo nm; Obser- vations on the Geography and deuce of Peru, E. G. Squier, 150.—Solar

clipse: Murchison: Balfour Stewart, 151. Obituary. 3 Bischof: William Chauvenet, 151

neous Bitiograpiy, Soggy of _ Franklin Institute: The Ma _ Archi- pelago, by A. R. WaLtace ventures of a Young Naturalist, by L. Brart: The Rob Roy on the ini, Nile Red Sea, ete., by J. Micdamen, 152.

APPENDIX.—From B. A. Gould, dated Cordova, 153.



Arr. XXTV.—On the Discovery of actual Glaciers on the Mountains of the Pacific Slope; by Crarence Krine,_. 157 XX V.—Contributions gas aa ae ie ae Lawrence ‘hool.

Scientific Se n some rocks and other dredgings from the Gulf ‘seeain by S. P. SHarpies,.. 168 XX V{I.—Calorimetric Investigations; by R. Bunsen, 172 XXVIL.—On the Porcelain rock of China; by Baron von BICHTHOVEN, © 25 oe yo oe od ce athe eee 179 XXVIUIL. mabe on Granitic Rocks: Part II; by T. Srerry a ee oe et 182 XXIX, om the egy of the Kastern Uintah Mountains ; We Co Misi es ee ge oe aaa 191 XXX.—On the fives of the Batrachia Anura of the British Museum Catalogue; by E. D. Copx,.--.------------- 198 XXXI.—On eee from the Gulf and River St. Law- rence; by G. M. Dawson, .--.----.----------------- 204 XXXII. Brief Contributions to Zodlogy from the Museum of Yal lege. No. XIL.—Descriptions of new and peter ae known Ascidians from New England; by Bo Be Viewed os fe os ees 211


istry and Physics.—On the synthesis of indigo seats we —On the products

of the distillation of ee = Mane high boiling points: On a new reaction for ang 1S A. W. Horrman: On the ee of Naphthalin, Firrig and SEN, 214.—On the Spectrum of the Aurora Borealis, Jouy Browntne, 215,

cee a Natural History. Rah ie Survey of Ohio, 215.—Report o Geological Survey of Iowa, by C. A. WHITE, 217. —Rep ort 4 the Geulogioal bg ploration of the Fortieth Parallel, made under the direct ion of Maj. Gen. 4 é

umphreys, ete., by James D. Hacu E, 218.—The Titeratare of Kent’s Ca avern, near Torquay, eccaslies: Atlas rit Krystall-formen des Mine raleiches yon Dr. es as ti x opsis of the Extinct Batrachia and Reptilia of North America, by E. D. Corn, 220. spr Rocks of South Carolina; their sors and Developmen by F S. Homes: Geognostise isch-mineral- ogische Fragmenta aus Italien, I Thiel Die Ingal Elba, by G. vom Ratu: Lophiotherium nec ae : Auchenia Californica : Protohippus of Leidy: Fossil Reptiles of the Cre taceous of Kansas: General Chart showing the amount and yield of Mineral fuel in ape in the year 1868, by Fr. ForTTERLE, 221.—-Rho- dodendrez Asiz Orientalis, 222.-—Flora Australiensis: Marsilie and Pilularis, revised by A. BRAUN, 223.

"Astronomy. a of Dec. 22; Mediterranean Eclipse, 1870, J. NoRMAN Lockyer, 224.-Appendix to the Washington n Observations of 1868, Com. Sanps: Professor Vous on the Eclipse, 230.

Miscellaneous Scientific Intelligence —On ss depron Generation, by E. FRANKLA 230.—Statisties of Mines and Minin >. “om se Territories west of the Rocky Mountains, by R. W. RayMonp: filo, Hawaii, 232.—

short course in Astronomy and the use = Globes, ay Henry Kipper, 233.-- Obituary.— William Chanvenet. 233.



Art, XX XIII.—Notice of the discovery of a Cave in East-

ern Paget ge oe oe of Post-Pliocene Fossils; by Cuartus M. WukatLey,__.__.__.---.--- 235

XXXIV.—On the Gesiony of the Dates. and the Mudlumps of the Passes of the Mississippi; by Eve. W. Hirearp, 238

XXXV.—Contributions to Physics from the Lawrence Sci- entific School.—No. 1; by 8S. P. Suarp 247

X .—Notes on the Geology of Sean Diesince. by

MMe es RAM ea ee sn LS Sd Ss 252 XXX VIL—On Spore-cases in Coal; by J. W. Dawson, . 256 XXX VIIT.—On a method of fixing, photographing and ex- hibiting the Magnetic Spectra; by Atrrep M. Mayer, 263 XXXIX.—Notice of a Fossil Forest i in the Tertiary of Cal- ifornia; by 0: Maney. Bite ees daskwe eye oboe ounis 266 XL.—On the Datsratintion of the Alkalies in Silicates by age abe yh of Lime and Sal-ammoniac; by

J. LAWRENCE Sm 269 XLI.—On the Great Siscapes of June, 1843; by Danter TER WOOR, SiS: ene! nee XLII. ZaOnlodlitietsis Investigations; by R. BUNSEN, weet 277 XLII—On the Solar Protuberances ; by L. Respient, . cas 285

XLIV.—Brief Contributions to Zoblogy from the Museum of

Yale College. No. I.— Descriptions of new Ascidians from New England; by A. E. Verrixt, 288 XLV. 2 Miia Drift; by Cu. F. Harrr 294


Physics.—On some Lecture-experiments, JuLius THOMSEN, 296.— Antozone, ENGLER and Nasse, 297.—On the Peroxides obtained by Electrolysis, WERNICKE, —A Laboratory cong yen 2 Practical Nore try; or Introduction to Qualitative Analysis, Wm. G. V TIN, 299.—A Series of Chemical Problems for use in College 8 and Schools, .. E. cn ORP B, 300,

Geology and ioe History. eager ornia Geological Survey, 300. s-Genkowionl Sur-

vey of Illinois, 301.—Burning of the State Geological Rooms at Springfield, IL, 303.— rs of the Geological Survey of Iowa, Vol. II: Historical notes of the Earthquakes of New: Englan ne iuaaniy, 304,—Preliminary notice of a

new species of Trimerella, from a ¥. B. MEEK. 305.—The Phosphate Rocks of South Carolina, F. S. Homme Beate African Diamonds: SPE verti- cillata, 306.—Musci Appalachian, specimens of Mosses ager ye mostly in the

astern sb of North America, C. F. Austin: Report on the Progress of ee State Geological Survey of Michigan by oipreaa on aang Annual Report © the State Geologist of New Jersey, 1870, 307.

Astronomy.—Transit of a ie 1874, ASAPH HALL. 307.—On a Meteor seen at Konkshe Minn., T. M. Yo @: Fall of Meteoric Stones at Concord, Ohio, 308.

Miscella entific Intelligence.-—Recent Auroral displays i a OR ——_ press On the Col Color of. Lake Doaers and the Mediterr: ~~ ei a, anual of nef 7 seven place s of igen Dr. BRunNs: Vaiuath ation a ohehles on the ‘Combi perience or “a Act s” Rate of M ortality, ELIZUR WRIGHT: The Pliner | Pr Tilnstrated, 310. a Mayer Wetherill, 310



Apr, XLVL—On the Solar Corona; by C. A. Youne,.-..- Sil XLVII.-——On the ies ge a of the Trilobite, Asaphus platycephalus; by Jas BD. DaWas vers pect bagel. 320 XLVIUIL. le oe of some new Fowl Serpents, from the Tertiary Deposits of Wyoming; by O. C. Marsu,_ ---- 322 IX.—Contributions to Chemistry from the Laboratory of the Lawrence Scientific School. No. 14.—On the estima- tion of Phosphoric Acid; by Cuartes E, Munrog, -._ 329 L.—On certain Glacial and Post-Glacial phenomena of the Maumee Valley; by G. K. Girpert,----..-----.----- 339 LL apes: on the ae pellucida; by J. J. WOODWARD 0 onc. ee wee ede ~ a a men ee ee 345 LIL. —Memor aida on the Surirella gemma; by J. J. Woop- ; Kevee dub naw eae eet pete ee tbe te oo 34 LIL. Souenaeets Investigations; by R. Bunsen, . ------ 348 LIV.—On the Geolo oBy 0 of the Delta, and the Mumps of the Passes of the Mississippi; by Eve. W. Hirearp, -- 356

LV.—On the existence of the (so-called) compound re nium Amalgams; by the late Cuaries M. Wee. 369

SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. Physics. gre: Seay aabeaag f the Aur gi ZOLLNER, 372.—

oric and nitrous pag Sonics Amikoe: Researches on v anadinm, ROScoE, 374.—On a new platinum chlorid, S. A. Norton, 31: 5.—Synthesis of = of Rue, Gorup-BEsaANEz and Grimm: On the action of Chlorine upon Aldehyde; a new Chloral, —_ and PINNER, 376.—On the composition of the oil of the Palm-

seed, Ovp ANS, 377.

logy and Natural History.—On the Mineralogy of Eozoon Canadense. R. Horr- MANN, 378.—On a Mineral Silicate injecting eer Crinoids, T. 8. Hunt, 379. On native amorphous Mercurie Sulphide, G. E. rans 330.—Freieslebenite and a2 be On the Eocene beds of Utah, T. Devers. 381.—Coal Plants of the Illinois Geological ae 4th Volum 383. —The Bone Cave of Eastern Pacnsyivasia, 384,—Re the Piareat of the State rneroaar Survey of Michigan, Alex. Winchell, “rector 385.—Note on a ler praia Pale - leum in Nova ae" D. HoneyMAn: On Fossil Vertebrates of Caves on the


i ., B.D. Saurocephalus of avian, Cope: Geology of Ohio: Note on Asaphus platy jest alus, J.D. Dana: On the Earthquake at Oahu, W. D. ALEXANDER, 386.— A- REDE on Marine Bryozoa: Ceratodus, its place in the System of Fishes, W. Fos- TER, 387 ee peice oee of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 389.—Second and Third Annual Reports of the Trustees of the Peabody Adem my of = for 1869 and 1 1870, 390.—On the Genesis of Spe- cies, St. GEORGE MIVAR’ Miscellaneous Scien pa a —Anthracite sig: Trade of Ege {yr PW.

eed the sale of fossils and minerals: Corrosion of lead co ete avg ng chal 392. Obituary.—Lartet: Beequerel: Guillaume Lejean: H


B Arr. LVI.—On Jupiter and its Satelites ; by M. Mrrcuent, 393 EVIL sue the Physical Constitution of the Sun; by W. A. Norton, VII. —On the composition of Permanent Illuminating Gas obtained from the decomposition of Petroleum Naphtha; b

y H. DGERTON, LIX.—A Historical Note on the Method of Least Squares ;

by Crmvet ane ApeB oe 5 = oc ee ee LX. —Gontribgsen - Chautetry from the Laboratory of the Lawrence Scientific School. No. 15.—On some new An-

alytical Methods; by T. M. Cuararp, __..______.___- LXI.—On the Oil-bearing Limestone of Chicago; by T.S.Hunt, 420 LXIi—On the Geology of the Delta and the Mudlumps of

the Passes. of the Mississippi; by E. W. Hinearp, - 425 IL— Observatio ons on the Structure and habi or the Stephanurus denta tus Diesng, or Sclerostoma pinguicola

were, Uy Wee Bo Pierre oe LXIV. yo certain Forms of the "Electrical Discharge in . W. Wriaut, 437

SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. Chemistry and Physics.— gs a new series of ammonia- ungete a CLEVE, 459.

—On the ‘reparation o hydrie phosphide for lectur ents, HOFMANY, 460.—On the direct = Allah of the alcohol radicals for the Hydrogen in hydric phosphide, HorMann, -—On a new of forma‘ op een

Acid, REMSEN, 462.—New Spectroscopic Combination, rome’ ick: Rae p iow Elementary Physics, STEWART, 464.

Geology and Natural History.—On ete Coal Plants, LESQUEREUX, 465.—On some of N

points connected with the Cretaceous and Tertia gy orth Carolina, ConRAD, 468.—On the Earthquake at ores: ALEXANDER, 4 —Note on Trimerella acu- eos BILLIn sei 471.—} nee on the discovery of on opercula of Hyolithes in

w York, Forp: No and gi ‘nats doce of Pterodac hes MARSH: Barthquakes, vabeorraain shocks ol disturban - nibs eology f Louisiana: omen <n Report of the U. 8. Geological Sur f Wyoming, ee portions of con us Territories : arena der ohyaaataeles iBioratoge ScaRavur: Min- cl Notizen; Hussen 473.

Ast a Sunspot se sie the naked eye, F. H. SmirH: Discovery of a new eh cs the 113th: Table of Elements of 25 planets, 474.

Botany.—Flora Brasiliensis, Martius: Popular ae of British Plants, Prior: Les Fleurs de Pleine Terre, ViinMORIN-ANDRIE A Synopsis of all the kno Lilies, BAKER: On the Forms and Distrib besbindl < rit the World of the Batrachium section of ge eg Hiern, 475.—The Rhododendron, and ‘‘American Plants,”

Miscellaneous Scientific Intelligence pevivhis races ch ae A acl 476.—Associ- ations for ; fir ie Advancement on Science: ei of the oy be the oe versal Exposition, 478.— Obitua a thane Mayer Wetherill, 4 Herschel: Becquerel, 479.

InpeEx, 480.



Journal of Science and Arts,


Art. L—On the Quaternary, or Post-tertiary, of the New Haven : . * .

Region; by JAMES D. Dana.

I. Tue GLACIAL BRA AN ERA OF GLACIERS, AND NOT OF ICEBERGS. Ir is still a mooted question in American Geology whether

the events of the Glacial era were due to glaciers or icebergs. Agassiz and Guyot, who were long among the most active of Alpine explorers, found on their arrival in d only the effects of glaciers. But American geologists are still divi- ded in opinion, and some of the most eminent have pronounced In favor of icebergs.

The region of New Haven is exceedingly well situated for Settling the question, not only as regards its immediate vicinity, but for the whole interior of New England. For in the first place, the region is a wide and open area at the southern termi- nation of the Connecticut Valley ;+ and this valley is the great central valley of New England, including the larger part of its surface outside of Maine, the Green Mountains making its west- ern border, and the White Mountains and the height of land southward, its eastern. Then secondly, the valley has a north-

* The principal facts relating to the New Haven Quaternary, which I propose to bring out in the article here begun, are included in a paper by the author on the Geology of the New Haven region, published recently by the Connecticut Academy, m volume II, of their Memoii

+The Connecticut Valley has a general course ria north to south, v

ais :


little from S$. W. It is the Triassic (or urassic)

Sandstone fi ion from New Haven to northern and this indicates

the position which it had in the Mesozoic The Connecticut river leaves

valley at z a 3 a oe | course P the eastern half of Connecticut. j

Am. Jour. Sct—Turep Sertss, Vor. I, No, 1.—Jan,, 1871. 1

2 J. D. Danaon the Quaternary of the New Haven Region.

ments, and the New Haven region would have a: be- come filled with registers of the successive events. Being situ- ated on an arm of the Sound, and at the same time extending inland for seven or eight miles along three streams that here have _ discharge, the presented comprise results

the sea and the rivers, and also from their combined

action. ‘On these several pest the New Haven region is _


A mene) study of the region during the last two years has led the writer to the conclusion that the effects are a of glaciers, or rather, of a Onions valley, or Central England, glacier.* To exhibit all the evidence bearing pod the question would require a full discussion of the whole range of facts “rae again by the New Haven Quaternary. I propose at this time to mention only a few of the more trenchant and de- cisive points.

e question is—W as the interior of New England in the Gla- cial era covered by a sea at least 4,000 feet deep for the floating of icebergs; or, was it emerged land as now, (perhaps to a higher level than at present) and submerged only eneath ice, the ice of an immense glacier, 3,000 fee oat less in thickness, the ice

in Vermont and New Siderekies being 4,000 feet and more above the level of the sea?

The sea, if it covered the land in the Glacial era, should ee left proof of it along the southern coast of New England.

About New Haven, the height of the stratified Quaternary deponite above the sea (Long Island Sound), or above the river flats, no where exceeds 50 feet. This is the maximum; the

icular facts will be i at another time. Fifty fe et is therefore the greatest amount of depression of the land which is indicated, the greatest that can be admitted by those who base their geological conclusions on facts. There are no traces of sea beaches or any thing corresponding thereto at a higher level. On passing the level of 50 feet above the Sound there is an abrupt transition from the stratified to the unstratified drift, except along the courses of streams, and near these, there is the same transition on passing the level of 50 feet (or less) above the existing river flats. The highest sea-level of the Quaternary era about the New Haven region is thus definitely marked. It is often assum

eminent! ake sinned for deciding the glacial question for all w England.

* The existence of essentially independent glaciers, (under the continental Glacier) in the Glacial era was recognized by the author in an article in this Journal, vol. Xxxv, p. 243, 1863, and in his Manual of Geology, p. 763, published about the same time; and four great gee were there particularly mentioned, the Connecticut River, the Penobscot, the Hudson River, and the Mohawk Riv:

He Sp Bi nae jeetmes a

J. D. Dana on the Quaternary of the New Haven Region. 3

that the unstratified drift might have been dropped over the hills by icebergs; but, as Mr. Croll has recently urged, deposi- tions in water cannot be made without stratification.

slightest jar ofa vat of water holding sediment suspended will cause that sediment to go down in a laminated state; and so de- posits of sands and gravels in the ever moving sea will always manifest their aqueous origin. The stratified and unstratified material about New Haven therefore mark the limit between aqueous and dry-land deposition. Much has been said about

for such results only in case they spread completely over the wide surface and rested ary upon its every part,—in whic case they would be nothing less than partly submerged gla-

The scratches are, in some cases, in such positions that only a glacier could have produced them. erie ‘or example: on Aiecu Carmel—an east-and-west ridge in the Connecticut valley depression; about 750 feet in height, nine miles north of New Haven—along one of the steep southern valleys, the surface of trap (dolerite) is extensively abraded, and marked with many large and broad north-and-south fur- rows. An iceberg, moving southward, which could float over the top of Mount Carmel ridge would not touch bottom in this southern valley, for the eroded is at least 150 feet below the level of the ridge to the north of it. While this erosion 1s, ‘ore, beyond the capacity of icebergs, it would be the nat- ural result of a Connecticut valley glacier.

4 J. D. Dana on the Quaternary of the New Haven Region.

4, Since jeeieorins: are fragments of glaciers broken off by the sea into which they descend, and since their freight of stones is part of the moraines of the old glacier, the boulders of the New Haven region, and of New England generally, should, on the Iceberg hypothesis, be the rocks of the White Mountains (whose highest peak, Mt. Washington (the loftiest in New England) is 6288 feet high), or of some Green Mountain Peak (over a thou- sand feet lower), if not from some more ee northern source.

in fact, the boulders about New Haven have come

mainly from the central of adaions and Massachusetts,

and eer from the hills or ledges in the Connecticut valley it-

self; and not from any mountain summit or ridge either side.

They are ceerieae from the bottom of the alleged Iceberg sea, and not from any emerged sum neh

These boulders are masses of trap 1000 tons in weight and

been over 2600 feet below the ead if the ranch sea were 4000 feet deep. Other boulders are of the Triassic red sand- stone; and these also had their origin in the Connecticut valley, south of the northern limits of Massachusetts, for none exists farther north. Others, of large size, some of them ten to four- teen feet in length, are of gneiss and came from a gneiss region, either in northern Connecticut, ten to twenty miles west of the Connecticut river, or just north of this in the adgchnings zt of Massachusetts. Again, six to eight miles west of New es there are numerous large boulders of porphyritic gneiss, which were derived from ledges less ti nt to the north or northwest.

heights to the cele or northwest ; and this was true of all the drift material. The observations of others over New Eng- land, as well as those I have made over Connecticut, sustain the conclusion that the and of the unstratified drift has not come from rem "oul gal but has been shoved southward by some agent that could gather it up over the breadth of the nd and bear =< erent to it after a few miles, or scores of miles of trans) ; this is evidently impossible work for a a ince, then, icebergs cannot pick up masses tons in weight from the bottom of a sea, or give a general movement southward to the loose material of the surface ; neither can produce the abra-

W. A. Norton on the Corona in Eclipses of the Sun. 5

sion observed over the rocks under its various conditions ; and inasmuch as all direct evidence of the submergence of the land required for an iceberg sea over New England fails, the conclu- sion appears inevitable that icebergs had nothing to do with the drift of the New Haven region, in the Connecticut valley ; and, therefore, that the Glacial era in central New England was a G aciet era.

Art. IL—On the Corona seen in total Eclipses of the Sun; by Professor W. A. NorTON.

In a communication to the Sept. No. of this Journal, I alluded briefly to the auroral theory of the solar Corona, an fe to publications in which I had advocated it. I propose now to give a brief discussion of the theo

unds upon which I have maintained the auroral origin of the Corona in different publications are the following :

. The Corona cannot be the permanent atmosphere of the sun, shining by reflected light, since its outline is neither cir- cular nor oval, but exceedingly irregular, and it extends out from the sun many times farther in some directions than in others. The utmost tHat can reasonably be maintained is that for a small portion of its outward extent, for which the grada- tion of light is nearly uniform, it may possibly be a solar at-

streamers have been seen to extend more than 1, from the sun, while others did not extend to one quarter of this distance.

auroral streamers, we must expect that they will not be per- manent in their extent and position. Now it is well known

6 W. A. Norton on the Corona in Eclipses of the Sun.

that such is the fact, for the aspect of the corona has been very different in different eclipses (e. g. eclipses of 1842, 185i,

becomes subject to the operation of th at v perceive the sun to exert upon a portion of the matter of comets. The luminosity of such radiations may be ascribed either to a reflection of the sun’s light, or to electric discharges. Upon this question we shall see important evidence was ob- tained at the total eclipse of Aug. 7, 1869.

6. If we adopt the auroral theory of the corona, and at the same time admit that the auroral streamers are actual emana- tions of luminous matter, the following consequences may be expected to follow.

(1.) A portion of the auroral matter emitted from the sun should upon the earth’s atmosphere, and may furnish the substance of terrestrial auroras, for which no terrestrial origin has yet been detected.

(2.) Upon this view of the possible origin of terrestrial auroras, the close correspondence that has been detected be- tween the periods of the sun’s spots and of auroras, should sub-

* According to the recent spectroscopic determinations of Lockyer and Frank- land, the solar atmosphere must be of exceedin tenuity in the region of the rose- colored protuberances just above the general surface of the chromosphere.

W. A. Norton on the Corona in Eclipses of the Sun. 7

sist if we allow that the spots are merely the natural result of the supposed discharges of the solar matter, grok’ for a

ism I have elaborated, and followed out into a detailed discus-

We may add that it derives additional support from the gene- ral result arrived at by Prof. Chambers, in his discussion of the Nature of the Sun’s Magnetic Action,” viz: that “the mode in which forces originating in the sun, influence the magnetic con-

ition of the earth, is not analogous to the action of a magnet upon a mass of soft iron placed at a great distance from it, but that these forces proceed from the sun in a form different from that of magnetic force, and are converted into this latter form of force probably by their action upon the matter of the earth or its atmosphere.” If this be admitted then we must conclude that the perturbations of the earth's magnetic condition, as evinced by the variations of the position and directive force of the magnetic needle, must result either from some action direct or indirect on the earth or its atmosphere, of some form of matter emitted from the sun, or from a wave-action propa- gated from the sun, or from both of these operative causes

(4.) The streamers of the corona should have at different points of the sun’s photospheric surface different directions, parallel to the diverse directions of the magnetic force of the sun at this surface. These directions should be variously in- clined, in different heliographic latitudes, to the horizontal lines at the points of the surface, and also to the plane of the sun’s

uator ; like the dipping needle on the earth and the streamers of a terrestrial aurora. In low latitudes the angles of inclina- tion to the plane of the equator should be large, and the streamers proceeding from corresponding points in the two hemispheres, should converge and intersect in the plane of the equator. In proportion as these corresponding streamers proceed from points more remote from the sun’s equator, they will intersect

8 W. A. Norton on the Corona in Eclipses of the Sun.

The same fundamental conception which accounts for the solar corona, and the physical relations known to subsist be- tween the sun’s spots and terrestrial auroras, as well as between

in the directions of the prolongations of the auroral columns,

the cometic matter, they are amet to a continual repulsion from the sun, the paths descri would be h

Intersection of any two streamers proceeding from correspond-

result as to the form and position of the luminous appearance produced, (the zodiacal li hh : In suppo

but the indefinite extension of the corona. * It is here assumed that the magnetic equator of the sun is coincident with his heliographic equator.

Cy ES Ee er eae gee ee

W. A. Norton on the Corona in Eclipses of the Sun. 9

It is proper to state here, that in what precedes we have really been contemplating but different sides of one com dines theory, which embraces a connected series of solar mena, of which the corona is but one term. The outline sat this theory is —_ in the author’s Treatise on Astronomy revised edition (1867). It is that a portion of the matter of the sun’s photosphere is in the habitual condition of auroral magnetic columns; that by electric discharges along these columns, their substance becomes dispersed and in part projected into space ; and that this process, wherever occurring, may by a continued dissipation ofa portion of the photospheric matter at that locality, eventuate in rh formation of a visible spot on the disc; that the photospheric matter thus discharged into space, is in that

uliar condition recognized in cometic matter in which it ecomes subject to a repulsive ra from the sun (or else to a inished attractive action, as occurred to a certain extent in

the case of Donati’s comet, and in that of 1861), and in the act of flowing away is visible in solar eclipses as the streamers of the corona, and at more remote distances as the zodiacal light; that these solar emanations furnish the matter of terrestrial auroras, and when descending in copious showers into the earth’s atmos- phere, and developing electric currents and disturbing the magnetic condition of the earth, are the a cause of e phenomena of magnetic storms.” The apparent struc- ci and variability of the corona, and, me me? soon see, the st characteristic features of its form, t cpg) sigan and

he periods

pi _ sun’s spots with the periods of of act auroras, and

March and Jul 855). If it indeed yd true, that from the fundamental cone ss of material emanations sg the sun similar to those nee

that this conception is founded in truth, and furnishes the true explanation of the varied phenomena observed.

10 W. A. Norton on the Corona in Eclipses of the Sun.

Results of Observations on the Corona made at the Total Eclipse |

of August 7, 1869.

The observations made on the Corona on the occasion of the _

eclipse of 1869, have furnished several striking confirmations :

of the theory that it is an auroral phenomenon.

observed form and structure of the Corona.—I will first :

adduce the results of my own observations. These were made

at Des Moines, Iowa, with the naked eye, and a good opera- glass, and were chiefly confined to the Corona. When the totality commenced, and the beautiful corona stood revealed, like a new creation, against the dark background of the sky, almost the first striking feature that caught my attention

ingly nearly parallel to the ecliptic, extended out a large fraction oe)

From the polar regions other pointed masses of lightrextended

out to considerable distances, but not so far as those Ju ticed. ‘They seemed to be composed like the others, of rays or hair-like luminous radiations, more or less distinct. The

same station, through a small telescope) to converge more or


less. This convergence I failed to detect; but I distinctly

sides, convex outward, but the triangular outline eget as if resulting from the intersections of individual ra iations,

ous mass. The corona had a white silvery luster, and appeared at times

- B. A. Gould, who was stationed’ at Burlington, Iowa, and other observers, thought that both the luster and extent of the radiating masses, or i

Lear} v . rey shige spake SR ig gh oo rea Ee rhea Hts R nosresan | CMa en lac Sp acer W eet ie Le ieee ee es RR ee Dy ee ee EL ee ee

W. A. Norton on the Corona in Eclipses of the Sun. 11

is favorable rather than opposed to the auroral theory of the corona ; but it is probable that the apparent changes are due to inequalities in the interceptive action of the earth’s atmos- pheve on the light of the corona, and especially on the faint ight at its outer boundary.

Professor Harkness, of the U. S. Naval Observatory, in his

heliographie latitudes—relying upon the report o observer; but on a direct examination of the question of the location of these angles, or “star points” of the corona, made

that obtained in the eclipses of 1865 and 1869, we may Say that the corona is brighter and more extended about in the

sun, on opposite sides of the equator, should converge and intersect in the plane of the equator, and for a certain distance * Professor Winlock, in his report of observations on the eclipse, says, tl photograph of the corona taken at Shelbyville shows a flattening at the extremities of the sun’s axis, and an elevation about the equatoreal region.” The photographie impressions obtained of the eclipse, at the different stations show, however, but a portion of the outward extent of the corona visible to the naked eye.

12 W. A. Norton on the Corona in Eclipses of the Sun. on either side of this plane, and in consequence the corona should to extend farther in the plane of the equator,

er directions. The convergence of individual ra s

or lines of ti | noticed by Professor Eastman. It of course may happen that

nearer the sun. a But it may be asked how are we to explain, on the present theory, the “star points” of the corona over the polar regions: of the sun. For these, two reasons may be assigned. (1) If we admit a distribution of magnetism on the sun similar to that which prevails on the earth, the auroral streamers should diverge from each other less rapidly in the high than in the low latitudes. (2) Upon opposite sides of a line of no declina- | fion traversing the sun's surface, analogous to that which trav-— erses Russia, the natural directions of the streamers prolonged upward be such as to occasion the convergence and uta tar A of those proceeding from the opposite sides of this ne. |

Bi a We may say then that the more extended portions of the corona, in the eclipse of 1869, were over those regions of the : sun's surface, and those only, where upon the present theory the intersections of streamers might be expected to occur. . In some eclipses distinct luminous curves having the appear ance of luminous jets issuing tangentially to the sun’s limb, or obliquely inclined to it, and pursuing a course either convex OF concave to the limb, have been seen. According to M. Liats these peculiarities a a observable in the eclipse as ae

projected from the sun in a direction oblique to the surface, it would proceed in a convex hyperbolic curve if repelled by the sun, and in a concave curve if ;

cometary mai Donati’s Comet was actually repelled by the sun, while that on ~ the coneave-side had become detached from the head of the

W. A. Norton on the Corona in Eclipses of the Sun. 13

matter, and subject to the action of the e solar forces, it may well happen that some individual jets will proceed in con- vex, and others in concave curves, according as the escaping

double image prism of Iceland spar, and the other by a plate of quartz. Looking through the former we see two images of the latter, which when the light is polarized assumes com-

alike, and both pure white, but one was on a blue and the other on a yellow back-ground. From this we infer that the unpolarized, or, at least, that the polarization was too slight to be perceptible.” We may infer from this that the corona is either self lumi- nous or shines by diffuse reflection; since specular reflection produces po on.* on The testimony of the spectroscope 1s still more decisive. Profs. Pickering, kn from dark lines; but containing one or more bright lines. The absence of dark lines indicates that the corona did not shine by the light of the photosphere, reflected either diffusely or ularly from its substance ; since such light, after reflection, ould, like the direct solar light, have given a . peroge with the Fraunhofer lines. The ence of bright lines, on the other hand, is a direct indication that the corona was se ‘lumi- nous ; and therefore that its light was the result either of com- ~ * The question whether the light from the corona is in any degree polarized ! not cannot be regarded as definitively settled. It is to be hoped that the observa- tions to be made on the eclipse of December will remove all doubt on this pomt.

14. W. A. Norjon on the Corona in Eclipses of the Sun.

bustion or of electric discharges. As it is hardly supposable that an actual combustion could prevail at the distance of tens, and hundreds of thousands of miles from the sun’s ies ma

possible trace of it, we must infer that the light of the corona is of electric origin. | In the hands of Prof. Young and Prof. Winlock the spectro- scope se obtained direct evidence of a physical correspondence between the solar corona and terrestial auroras. Prof. Young ehesenat in the spectrum of the corona a bright line the post- _ tion of which he gives as 1474 on Kirchoff’s scale, and which Kar ves to be in coincidence with a small line marked as cron on irchoff’s and caenge s maps. He remarks that “it turns

rora. he remarks, as ur thins: “At ee it seems pretty key that the spectra of the corona an

por of iron is present in the Laas and chromosphere of t the magnetic features of the aurora lead to the tatnedl conclusion that some form of ferruginous matter constitutes the substance of auroras, for which no terrestrial origin can reasonably be assigned, conducts to the inference that the terrestrial auroral matter is derived from the sun, and adds to the hn of accumulative evidence in support of the theory I have Mss that the corona is made up of material emanations from the Note.—Some persons have les as that the corona might be produced by the passage of the sun’s rays through the rote atmos ao but it may readily be shown that this is